|East Godavari District|
East Godavari District is situated on the northeast of Andhra Pradesh state, India. The district headquarters is Kakinada. East Godavari District is bounded on the north by Visakhapatnam District and the state of Orissa, on the east and south by the Bay of Bengal, on the west by West Godavari District, and on the northwest by Khammam District.
 Early Hindu kingdoms
East Godavari District, like the rest of Deccan was under the Nandas and Mauryas in its early history. After the fall of the Maurya Empire, the district was under the Sathavahanas until the third century under the famous poet king Hala. Coins found during excavations have revealed the rule of Gautamiputra Satakarni, Vasisthiputra Pulumayi and Yajna Sri Satakarni. The Gupta emperor Samudragupta invaded the rulers of both Pishtapura and Avamukta in the district in 350. Samudragupta's invasion was followed by the rule of the kings belonging to Matharakul from 375 to 500. The earliest known ruler of the dynasty was Maharaja Sakthivarman.
The district passed into the hands of Vishnukundins during the rule of Vikramendravarma I during the 5th century. The records indicate that their domain extended over Visakhapatnam, West Godavari, Krishna and Guntur Districts in addition to East Godavari District. They also indicate that King Ranadurjaya of the Durjaya family ruled Pistapuram or Pithapuram as a vassal of Vikramendravarma. Indrabhattaraka defeated the rulers of Vasisthakula and reestablished Vihsnukundin authority, but was shortly defeated by Kalinga armies. Indrabhattaraka was followed to the throne by a few others, including Madhavarama III and Manchannabhattaraka, who tried to restore their kingdom. Madhavarama III was the last important ruler of this family.
 Chalukyas and Cholas
The Pulakesin II of Badami Chalukyas amd his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana acquired Pistapura in the 7th century. The Eastern Chalukya dynasty, founded by Kubja Vishnuvardhana, ruled at first form Pistapura, then from Vengi, and later from Rajahmundry. Many rulers held sway over the kingdom and their history is at times largely a record of disputes over succession. Chalukya Bhima I of this dynasty built a Shiva temple at Draksharamam. Jata Choda Bhima of Pedakallu(Kurnool district) killed Danarnava of this dynasty and occupied Vengi in 973 A.D. Danarnava's two sons, Saktivarman I and Vimaladitya, fled from the kingdom and took refuge in the court of the Chola king Rajaraja Chola I. Rajaraja invaded Vengi on behalf of the sons of Danarnava and killed Jata Choda Bhima. Satyasraya of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani did not like the Chola influence in Vengi and the area witnessed many wars between the Cholas and Chalukyas. After the death of Vijayaditya VII in 0175 A.D., the eastern Chalukya dynasty came to an end.
Kulothunga Chola I(born as Rajendra Chalukya), rival of Vijayaditya VII, fought along the sides of Cholas and established Chalukya Cholas province. The district along with the rest of the Vengi kingdom became part of their empire. Major potion of the district was under Velanati Chodas, trustworthy chieftains to him. The famous rulers of this dynasty were Gonka I, Rajendra Choda I, Gonka II and Rajendra Choda II. Vikramaditya VI of Western Chalukyas occupied this region for short period, but it was recovered by Chalukya Cholas and Velanti Chodas. Velanati chiefs also suppressed rebellions from Haihayas of Kona, subjects of Gonka II and Rudra of the Kakatiya dynasty.
 Kakatiyas and Delhi Sultanate
Inscriptions at this region including the ones at Draksharamam in 13th century throw the light of their history. Proal II of Kakatiya dynasty declared independence from the western Chalukyas and became subject of Chalukya Cholas. His son Rudra obtained the Godavari delta as gift from the Rajaraja II of Chalukya Cholas. Rudra's authority over the Godavari delta was challenged by the Velanadu Chodas. The Velanati king Rajendra Choda II sent an army under his minister Davana Preggada against Rudra. Rudra was succeeded by his younger brother Mahadeva who died in a conflict with the Yadavas of Devagiri. His son Ganapathi succeeded to the Kakatiya throne. Ganapathi defated Kalinga armies on the north, Pandyas of Madurai and Cholas with the help of Nellore Chodas. The Kakatiya power remained undisturbed in the Godavari region throughout the reign of Ganapathi and her daughter Rudrama devi. Prataparudra ascended the throne in 1295 and faced many attacks from Sultans of Delhi. After his defeat by Muhammad-bin-Tughluq in 1323, the district came under the rule of Delhi Sultnate. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq divided the South India into five provinces and appointed governors.
 Musunuri Nayaks, Reddies and other Hindu Kingdoms
Delhi sultans faced rebellions from the confederacy of local chiefs under the authority of Prolaya of the Musunuri Nayaks clan. The Reddis of Addanki and the Recherla Velamas of Rachakonda actively helped him. Warangal was liberated and Telugu land enjoyed freedom for fifty years. Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka appointed his relatives Toyyeti Anavota Nayaka and Mummadi Nayaka (Korukonda) as governors in Godavari region. Mummadi Nayaka married the niece of Kapaya Nayaka. Mummadi Nayaka lived till 1388. He had three sons who ruled for a period of 40 years and later they were reduced to submission by the Reddies of Kondaveedu and their principality was merged in the kingdom of Kondaveedu. Subsequently, Narasimhadeva IV of Kalinga succeeded in conquering this region, but was repulsed by Anavota Reddy of Rajahmundry. He was succeeded by Anavema Reddy and Kumaragiri of the same dynasty.
Kumaragiri fought many wars with the Racherlas of Rachakonda and the Kalinga rulers. He sent his general Kataya Vema along with Prince Anavota to conquer the eastern region. This resulted in the annexation of a large tract in the north as far as Simhachalam. The newly acquired territory was annexed to the Reddi Kingdom and constituted into a separate province called the eastern kingdom. Prince Anavota ruled this province with Rajamahendravaram as his capital. He died a premature death around 1395 and Kataya Vema, the general and brother-in-law of Kumaragiri, was given Rajamahendra Rajya in appreciation of the services rendered by him to the State. Kataya Vema's departure to Rajamahendravaram led to the seizure of the throne of Kondaveedu by force by Peda Komati Vema.
Peda Komati Vema's authority was defined by Kataya Vema. Kataya Vema was also involved in conflict with Eruva chief Annadeva Choda, who managed to occupy a large portion of the Rajamahendra Rajya. He was, however, defeated and driven back by Kataya Vema. Later, Kataya Vema died in a battle with Annadeva Choda. After his death, Allada Reddi placed Kataya Vemas' son Komaragiri on the throne of Rajamahendravaram and ruled the kingdom as his regent. Komarigiri died a premature death. Allada Reddi ruled this region till his death in 1420. About 1423, the Vijayanagara ruler Devaraya-II defeated Virabhadra, who was then ruling this kingdom and reduced it to subjection.
At Kondaveedu, Racha Vema succeeded Peda Komati Vema to the throne. His rule was very oppressive, and he received little support from his subjects when the Gajapatis of Orissa and Rayas of Vijayanagar invaded the kingdom. Kapileswara Gajapati crushed the Reddi power and annexed the Rajamahendra Rajya to his dominion.
After the death of Kapileswara Gajapati in 1470, there was a fight between his sons Hamvira and Purushottma for succession. Hamvira succeeded in occupying the throne with the help of Bahmanis but he could not retain it for long. Purushottama overthrew Hamvira and tried to reconquer Rajahmundry and other places. But Muhammad Shah III lead the forces to Rajahmundry. This battle, However, ended with the conclusion of peace treaty. After the death of Muhammad Shah III, Purushottama Gajapathi overran the whole of the Godavari-Krishna doab and drove the Bahmani forces as far south as Kondaveedu. Purushottama was succeeded by his son Prataparudra. The Vijayanagar monarch Krishnadevaraya invaded his kingdom and brought Rajahmundry under subjugation. However, a treaty was concluded wherein Prataparudra agreed to give his daughter in marriage to Krishnadevaraya in return of the territory north of the Krishna conquered by Krishnadevaraya.
 Later Muslim Kingdoms
Taking advantage of the disturbed conditions, the Qutb Shahi ruler of Golconda, Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, invaded the coastal region and took possession of Rajahmundry and the neighbouring kingdoms. Sultan Quli was murdered and he was succeeded to the throne by his son Jamshid Qutb Shah and then by his grand sun Subhan Qutb Shah. During his reign, Ibrahim Qutb Shah had to ward off challenges from Shitab Khan and Vidyadhar. The last ruler of this dynasty was Abdual Hasan Tana Shas, who ruled from 1672 to 1687.
During this period, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb brought most of southern India under his control. Aurangzeb conquered the sultanate of Golconda in 1687, and Golconda, including East Godavari District, became one of the twenty-two provinces of the Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb appointed viceroys to carry out the administration of these provinces. The Nizam-ul-Mulk (viceroy) of Golconda looked after the administration through military officers called Fauzdars. The Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar appointed Asaf Jah as the Nizam-ul-Mulk of the Deccan. He was, however, replaced by Husian Ali Khan, and during the time of emperor Muhammad Shah, Asaf Jah invaded the Deccan, defeated and killed Mubariz Khan in the battle of Shakar Khera in 1724 and ruled the Deccan as Nizam of Hyderabad.
The Nizam-ul-Mulk's death in 1748 led to a war of succession between his son Nasir Jung and his grandson Muzaffar Jung. The French and the British took different sides each. The dispute ended with the accession of Salabat Jung, with the help of the French General Bussy. General Bussy was, however, summoned to the south by Lally, the new Governor-General of the French possessions in India. As soon as he left, Ananda Raju, the new Raja of Vizianagaram, invited the English to come and occupy the Northern Circars. The tussle that ensued between the French and the English ended with the French losing all possessions in Northern Circars.
Salabat Jung was subsequently deposed by his brother Nizam Ali Khan, who leased out Rajahmundry and Chicacole to Hasan Ali Khan. Lord Robert Clive, entered into negotiations with the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam, and obtained a firman ceding the Northern Circars to the British East India Company in August 1765, but it was kept a secret until March 1766. The fort of Kondapalli was seized by the British, and General Cillaud was sent to Machilipatnam to undertake military operations, if necessary. The Nizam also made brisk preparations for war. War was prevented by the signing of a treaty on November 12, 1766 by which the Company, in return for occupying the Circars, undertook to maintain troops for the Nizam's assistance.
The Zamindars came into prominence during the period preceding the transfer of the district to the British. The Zamindars of Rampa, Peddapuram, Pithapuram, Kota and Ramchandrapuram were the important zamindars of this region.
 British rule, 1768-1947
By a second treaty, signed on March 1, 1768 the Nizam acknowledged the validity of Shah Alam's grant and resigned the Circars to the Company, receiving as a mark of friendship an annuity of 50,000. Finally, in 1823, the claims of the Nizam over the Northern Circars were bought outright by the Company, and they became a British possession. The Circars were incorporated into Madras Presidency, and Godavari District was constituted, which included present-day East Godavari and West Godavari districts.
 Since Indian independence, 1947-present
After India's independence in 1947, the former Madras Presidency of British India became India's Madras State. In 1953, the northern districts of Madras state, including Godavari District, became the new state of Andhra Pradesh.
East Godavari District lies between latitude 16° 30' and 18° 20' N, and longitude 81° 30' and 82° 36' E. The total area of the district is 10,807 km². The elevation varies from a few meters near the sea to about 300 meters in the hills. The main rivers are the Godavari, Pampa, Thandava, and Yeleru. General Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton with his irrigation plans to use Godavari water increased the cultivated land in the district.
East Godavari District can be broadly classified into three natural divisions, the delta, the upland, and hill tracts. The delta consists of the whole of Konaseema and portions of Kakinada, Ramachandrapuram and Rajahmundry areas. Soils are alluvial in deltas of Godavari and sandy clay at the tail portions of Godavari. This area is known for rice, plantain, betel, coconut gardens and many palmyrahs. The areas surrounding Tuni, Pithapuram, Peddapuram and Portions of Kakinada, Ramachandrapuram and Rajahmundry constitute the upland areas. The hill area consists of Eastern Ghats around agency areas of Rampachodavaram and Yellavaram. Red loamy soil in found in upland and hill areas.
The temperature reaches a maximum of 48 degrees Celsius from April to June and is moderate the rest of the year. The average rainfall of the district is around 1280.0 mm. More than half of the rainfall is from southwest monsoons and the rest is from the northeast monsoon during October and November.
The main occupations of the people are cultivation and animal husbandry. The district is famous for high milk yielding cow breeds like Punganoor breed.The atmosphere of this district is aawesome with greenery all around.Thousands of acre's of lush Gree paddy fields is a pleasant sight to watch out.There are hundreds of poultry farms in this district alone where in the EGG's produced are exported to far Kolkatta also. The district has many bridges across River Godavari at Alamuru, Yedurulanka, Chinchinada, Rajahmundry and Siddantham. The rajahmundry Rail and Road bridge connects East and West Godavari Districts.Rayabhupalapatnam,Peddapuram is one of the most popular village in the District.In the that village Most popular God Lord Ganesh.Anaparti is the name of one more village which is pretty famous for its active life and importanat events in the district.
The district is well connected by rail and road. The National Highway 5 connecting Chennai and Howrah passes through this district. The Chennai to Howrah rail line also passes through this district. The district has an airport at Madhurapudi, which is 15 km from Rajahmundry and 65 km from Kakinada.
 Parliamentary and Assembly constituencies
There are 3 Parliamentary and 21 Assembly constituencies in East Godavari district.
The parliamentary constituencies are:
The assembly constituencies are:
The district is divided into 5 Revenue Divisions and 60 revenue mandals among which 58 are rural and 2 are urban. The district has 57 Mandal Praja Parishads and 1,011 Gram Panchayats and nine Municipalities and Municipal Corporations. Total number of villages in the district is 1,379.
As per provisional population figures of 2001 Census of India, the total number of Mandals were 59. However as per G.O.Ms.No.31, Revenue (Registration & Mandals) Department, Dated 05-06-2002 a new Rural Mandal Routhulapudi (44 villages) with head quarters at Routhulapudi was formed by transferring certain villages from Sankhavaram (12 villages), Kotananduru (31 villages) and Tuni (1 village) Mandals, there by making total number of Mandals to be 60.
So many colleges and schools in East Godavari. Maharani College, Peddapuram is one of the most popular college in the district.
 See Also
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