|Name of the Indian Years Sixty Years|
The year is defined as 12 months, each of which is of 30 days in length i.e., the year is only 360 days long. Consequently, the calendar falls regularly out of date and is adjusted by introducing an additional month every so often. The additional month, called Adhika Maasa meaning literally an extra month, cycles through all the twelve months. No religious ceremonies or festivals are observed during the adhika maasa. There are 60 such year names and the cycle of years repeats every sixty years starting from Prabhava.
 Uttara and Dakshina Aayanas
The year is split into two halves, Uttharaayana and Dakshinaayana, based on the direction of Sun's apparent motion across the sky. The period of sun's six months in northern orbit is called Uttarayana. As the sun begins its journey north, it is believed that the Devas awaken from their slumber and start their day. This period id considered to be the path of light and very auspicious. We find that in Mahabharata, Bhishma waited until uttarayana to leave the world.
This is considered to be the darler path, and to be the night of the Devas. The other half of the year, during which the Sun's movement is southerly is called Dakshinaayana.
During a year, Sun's motion causes it to travel the entire Zodiac. The entrance of the Sun into each individual constellation is called sankramana and there are twelve such sankramanas (one month in length roughly). One important sankramana is the makara sankramana, which happens when Sun enters the Makara or Capricorn since it signals the beginning of Uttharaayana. In Andhra Pradesh, this is celebrated as the festival, Makara Sankranthi, and usually occurs on January 13 or January 14.
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