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Warangal or Orugallu (Telugu: వరంగల్)pronunciation (help·info) is a city and a municipal corporation in Warangal district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located in the Telangana region of the state. Warangal is 120 km northeast of the state capital of Hyderabad. Warangal is the administrative seat of Warangal District. It is the fourth largest city in Andhra Pradesh and the 32nd biggest city in India, with a population is 928,570 (including Hanamakonda). (agglomeration 1,077,190) (2006 census), [citation needed].

Warangal District has an area of 12,846 km², and a population of 2,818,832 (1991 census). The district is bounded by Karimnagar District to the north, Khammam District to the east and southeast, Nalgonda District to the southwest, and Medak District to the west. Warangal is well known for granite quarries (notably the black and brown varieties), grain market for rice, chillies, cotton, and tobacco.


[edit] History

Warangal was the capital of a Hindu Shaivite kingdom[citation needed] ruled by the Kakatiya dynasty from the 12th to the 14th centuries. The old name of this city is Orugallu. 'Oru' means one and 'Kallu' means stone. The entire city was carved in a single rock, hence the name Orukallu meaning 'one rock'. The city was also called Ekasila nagaram. The Kakatiyas left many monuments, including an impressive fortress, four massive stone gateways, the Swayambhu temple dedicated to Shiva, and the Ramappa temple situated near Ramappa Lake. The cultural and administrative distinction of the Kakatiyas was mentioned by the famous traveller Marco Polo. Famous or well-known rulers included Ganapathi Deva, Prathapa Rudra, and Rani (queen) Rudramma Devi. After the defeat of Prataparadura, the Musunuri Nayaks united seventy two Nayak chieftains and captured Warangal from Delhi sultanate and ruled for fifty years. Jealousy and mutual rivalry between Nayaks ultimately led to the downfall of Hindus in 1370 A.D and success of Bahmanis. Bahmani Sultanate later broke up into several smaller sultanates, of which the Golconda sultanate ruled Warangal. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered Golconda in 1687, and it remained part of the Mughal empire until the southern provinces of the empire split away to become the state of Hyderabad in 1724 which included the Telangana region and some parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka. Hyderabad was annexed to India in 1948, and became an Indian state. In 1956 Hyderabad was partitioned as part of the States Reorganization Act, and Telangana, the Telugu-speaking region of Hyderabad state which includes Warangal, was joined to Andhra Pradesh.

[edit] Geography

Warangal is located at 18.0° N 79.58° E.It has an average elevation of 302 metres (990 feet).

[edit] Economy

Warangal's economy is predominantly agricultural. It has a large grain market in Enamamula. This is a rice-growing region and most farmers grow rice for both subsistence and the market. Cotton has also been a major cash crop since the early 1990s; however the cotton sector has been troubled in recent years, and there was a well-publicized rash of suicides by cotton farmers in 1997-1998.

Industry has been neglected in the region by successive governments. Some industries existing during the Nizam's rule, like Azam Jahi Cloth Mills, have been closed; unemployment in the region may help feed the Naxalite (Peoples War Group) movement. Warangal has several small to medium scale industries but no large scale ones.

A STPI(Software technology parks of India)has been set up at the NIT Warangal with the intention of taking the benefits of the Information Technology revolution to second tier cities. Warangal makes an excellent location for this because of its proximity to Hyderabad, the student pool from some of the best institutes in the country, good transportation facilities, infrastructure, lower traffic problems etc.

[edit] Governance and politics

Warangal city is the headquarters of Warangal district. It contributes one seat in state legislature and one in Indian Paliament.

[edit] Politics

Warangal witnessed a bloody chapter in its history in 1969, called the "Mulki" (locals) agitation. In 1969, the people of Telangana raised their voice asking for a separate state. They felt discriminated in the Unified State of Andhra Pradesh and wanted to revert the unification, to exist separately as was the case before 1956. Warangal was the brewing ground of the movement and lead it from the front. Students, peasants, government employees all joined their forces. More than 400 Telangana students lost their lives in the struggle. In the early 2000s the movement for a separate Telangana was again started under the leadership of K Chandrasekhar Rao who established the political party 'Telangana Rashtra Samiti'(TRS). The party allied with the Indira Congress in the state elections. The alliance won majority, and Chandrasekhar Rao became a Union Minister. In 2006, as the Congress party was against separationism, Chandrasekhar Rao resigned his ministry and his Membership of the Parliament.

[edit] NGOs in Warangal

The Non Governmental Organisation functioning in Warangal are:

SWATHI is an NGO working for the cause of Blood Donation from Hanamkonda. SNEHA is an NGO providing rehabilitation for the AIDS effected in Warangal. ANURAAG is an Women Headed Organisation functioning on empowerment of the poor at hanamkonda. SAI VIKAS is an NGO running rehabilitation centre for the Mentally Challenged at Palivelpula. OASIS is an NGO Runnning Orphan Home in Hanamkonda.

[edit] Transport

Air : There is an airstrip at Mamnoor on the south-eastern outskirts of Warangal. The nearest international air port is located at Hyderabad, 150 km away. Rail : Warangal is well connected to all the major cities in India by rail. Kazipet is about 13km from Warangal and is a major railway junction on the Chennai-New Delhi route. Road : Long-distance deluxe buses ply from Warangal to Bangalore, Madras, Hyderabad, Tirupathi, Anantapur, and Hubli; and standard express buses to Guntur via Vijaywada, Cherial, Jangaon, Kodad, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Adilabad, Suryapet, Palampet, Jagtial, Khammam, Bhadrachalam, and Basara.

[edit] Demographics

As of 2001 India census,GRIndia Warangal had a population of 528,570. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Warangal has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 64%. In Warangal, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

[edit] Culture

The people of Warangal speak Telugu and Urdu as main languages. Both traditional attire like Saree, Lungi and Dhoti and modern dress styles are worn . The poets of this place include the ancient poets Potana and Palkuriki Somana to present day poets like Kaloji Narayana Rao, B Rama Raju, Pervaram Jagannatham, Kovela Sampatkumara, Ampasayya Naveen, and Varavara Rao have contributed to Telugu literature.

[edit] Festivals

The residents of Warangal observe Hindu festivals such as Dasara, Deepavali, Sankranti ( Pongal ), etc. In addidtion, the district currently hosts the Sammakka-Sarakka Jatra or congregation. Every two years(bi-annually) approximately 5 million people converge over three days around the small village of Medaram and its adjacent stream/rivulet, Jampanna Vagu, 90 km from Warangal city. This fair is said to be the largest repeating aggregation of tribal communities in the whloe world and commemorates the valiant fight put up by a mother-daughter combination (Sammakka and Sarakka )with the reigning rulers over an unjust law. Bonalu, Bathukamma festivals symbolic of the Telangana region are clebrated here ( Bathukamma is clebrated particularly by women ).

Annual Catholic Christian Festival in the name of St.Mary:

Fatima Feast is celebrated every year on February 12th and 13th by Catholic Christians at their Warangal Diocesian Head Quaters of Catherdral Church in Fatima Nagar,Kazipet. Though it is a Christian Festival, people from all the religions participate with much of devotion and deity.

Catholic Missionaries run a number of Boys and Girls Schools, ITI, Colleges and Hospitals, serving all sections of the Society.

[edit] Places of interest

  • Warangal Fort: Warangal fort, which dates back to the 13th century, is 2 km away from the Warangal Railway station. The fort was destroyed by invaders and only the ruins can now be seen. The fort had three layers of protection, remnants of which can still be seen today. The first layer is a mud wall, currently upto about 20 feet high and several kilometers in circumference, encircling the fort. The second layer is a wall up of granite rock. The fort has famous stone gateways, about 30 feet high and still standing, a masterpiece carved from a single rock. They are called Kirti Toranas (The gateways of glory) of Kakatiyas. They have become a widely replicated symbol for Andhra Pradesh tourism.
  • Thousand Pillar Temple: This temple is one of the finest examples of Kakatiya architecture and sculpture. Rudra Deva built it in 1163 in the style of Chalukyan temples, star shaped and triple shrined.Recently when the archeological department was making excavations, they found a well below the kalyanamantapam, which leads us to the conclusion that the foundation of this wonderful structure was buit on water!.
  • Ramappa Temple: also known as Ramalingeswara Temple, this temple is situated in Palampet village, 70 km from Warangal. This is a beautiful monument dating back to 1213. It displays the glory and richness of the Kakatiya kingdom and is the finest specimen of the temple architecture of the time.
  • Bhadra Kali Temple: Situated on a hilltop between Hanamkonda and Warangal, it is noted for its stone image of the Goddess Kali. The temple is located on the banks of the "Bhadrakali" lake (Cheruvu).
  • Samakka-Sarakka Jatra: (see 'Festivals' above)It is a biennial event held once in every two years. People from almost all the South Indian states come to worship these deities.
  • Siddeshwara Temple:Which was built in 3rd century, its one of the paschima dwara mukha temple (that is the entrance will be from west)
  • Jain Temple at Kolanpak or Kolanupaka : The 2,000-year-old Jain temple of Mahavira is a famous place of worship for Jains in the country. The temple is embellished with beautiful images of Tirthankaras. The 5 ft high image of Mahavira is carved entirely out of jade. Kolanupaka is off the town of Aler which lies almost exactly midway(75km) between Warangal and Hyderabad. This was the second capital town of Kalyani Chalukyas during the 11th century. During this period the village was a religious centre of Jains, and ranks among other great Jain centers in the south. The State Department of Archaeology and Museums established the Kolanupaka Museum which exhibits exquisite artifacts from the numerous historical monuments in Kolanupaka.
  • Pembarti village: famous for brassware lies on the Warangal-Hyderabad highway, 15 km from Jangaon and 10km before Aler town. It has a quaint little railway station made famous in the telugu movie hit Varsham(Rain).
  • Sri Veeranarayana Temple: This temple was built in the Chalukyan style around 1104.
  • Pakhal Lake: A man-made lake built in 1213 by the Kakatiya king, Ganapathideva, by harnessing a small tributary of the Krishna River. It is located 50 km from Warangal and spreads over an area of 30 km².
  • Vanavigyan Kendra: Situated on Hunter Road between Hanamkonda and Warangal.
  • Komaravelli: Komaravelli is holy place where devotees worship Komaravelli Mallana Swamy. Komaravelli is situated just before 10 km from Siddipet while going from Hyderabad/Secundrabad. There is no train facility here, and it can only be reached by road.
  • The fair starts on first week of January and lasts until "Ugadi" every year. On the last week of fair devotees walk on fire, a ritual called "Aggi Gundalu".

[edit] Education

The city is home to the Kakatiya University. The well known Kakatiya Medical College is here, and so is KITS or Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Sciences (KITS-Wgl).

It is also home to the Institute for Technology and Management (ITM Warangal) and the National Institute of Technology, Warangal (NIT W). NITs are engineering colleges of excellence established by the central govt in about 15 states of India. The Warangal institute is the first such Regional Engineering College, or REC as it was known then, and is ranked among the best NIT campuses in India.

There are more than 300 schools in this region. Most of the schools follow the state syllabus.

[edit] Media

Statewide news papers like Eenadu and Vaartha and Jyothi publish editions from this city and are widely read. Deccan Chronicle and The Hindu are the`popular English dailies. Popular TV channels are Etv, Maa TV and Gemini of the Sun network.

[edit] Sports

Cricket and football are the most watched and played games.

Cities and towns in Andhra Pradesh

AchampetAddankiAdilabadAdoniAkividuAkkarampalleAkkayapalleAllurAlwalAmadalavalasaAmalapuramAmaravatiAnakapalliAnantapurAnnavaramArmoorAsifabadAtmakurBadepalleBadvelBalanagarBandarulankaBandi AtmakurBanaganapalleBapatlaBattiliBellampalleBestavaripetaBethamcherlaBhadrachalamBhainsaBhattiproluBheemunipatnamBheemavaramBhoghapuramBhuvanagiriBoathBobbiliBodhanBollarumBowenpallyBuchireddipalemBugganipalleChandragiriChebroluCheepurupalliChennurChilakaluripetChinnachowkChintalavalasaChiralaChittoorChodavaramChoutuppalDaggavoluDasnapurDevarakondaDharmavaramDomahDommara NandyalDornalaDowlaiswaramDuvvuruEddumailaramEkambara kuppamEluruFarooqnagarGaddi AnnaramGadwalGajapathinagaramGajularegaGajuwakaGajwelGhatkeserGiddaluruGootyGudavalliGudurGummadidalaGuntakalGurramkondaHanamakondaHindupurHuzurabadHyderabadIchchapuramIchodaIsnapurJaggayyapetaJagtialJallaram KamanpurJammalamaduguJangaonJangareddygudemJannaramJanpahadJarjapupetaKadapaKadiriKagaz NagarKakinadaKalluruKalyandurgKamala NagarKamareddyKanapakaKandukurKanipakamKantabamsugudaKanuruKapraKarimnagarKavaliKazipetKhammamKondapurKoratlaKothagudemKothavalasaKovurKovvurKoyyalagudemKrishnapatnamKukatpallyKumaradevamKuppamKurnoolKyathampalleL.B. NagarLakkavarapukotaLuxettipetMacherlaMadanapalleMadaramMadhiraMahadevpurMahal (town)MahbubnagarMalkajgiriMamdaMancherialMandamarriMandapetaMangalagiriMantralayamManuguruMarkapurMedakMeerpetMiduthurMiryalgudaMoragudiMothkurMudholeMudigondaMukthapuramNagariNagarjunakondaNagar kurnoolNakrekalNalgondaNandyalNarasaraopetNarayanavanamNarayanpetNarsapur, Medak districtNarasapuramNarsingi, MedakNarsipatnamNarsapurNaupadaNellimarlaNelloreNew GunturNidadavoluNimmanapalleNirmalNizamabadNizampatnamNuzvidOmerkhan DairaOngole

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